How scientists solve moral dilemmas?
JEDLIČKA, P., KALVAS, F., PAITLOVÁ, J., KUBÍNOVÁ, L., PETŘÍK, P., VLASÁKOVÁ, B., KOS, Š. How scientists solve moral dilemmas?. Bern, 2019.
|Anglický název:||How scientists solve moral dilemmas?|
|Autoři:||PhDr. Petr Jedlička , PhDr. Mgr. František Kalvas Ph.D. , Mgr. Jitka Paitlová Ph.D. , RNDr. Lucie Kubínová CSc. , RNDr. Petr Petřík Ph.D. , Mgr. Blanka Vlasáková Ph.D. , doc. Mgr. Šimon Kos Ph.D.|
|Abstrakt EN:||The scientific arena is fertile ground for various moral dilemmas that stem either from scientific life itself (gender, or ethnic biases, misconduct) or its impact on the broader society (progress), which contributes to a lively discussion in the scientific community. While experimental philosophy (x-phi) typically investigates moral judgements in various groups and settings, x-phi of science has so far focused more on the study of concepts (Stotz et al 2004, Linquist et al 2011) than on moral issues (Machery 2016) , although for example vignettes are routinely employed to gain insights into decision making in scientific disciplines, such as medicine (Evans et al. 2015) . We try to remedy this partial neglect with our study on moral judgements in contemporary science with study which is a part of a broader empirical research project centered on objectivity in the natural sciences. For this study we chose 5 vignettes which centered on conflicting issues, such as scientific integrity (resistance to questionable publishing practices), biases in science (sensitivity to gender or ethnic stereotypes) and ethical questions (scientific progress). The vignettes typically pitted a desired scientific value against other scientific value (such as ethnic equality against academic freedom, gender equality against freedom of speech), or a scientific value against a general value (medical progress against research ethics). The scenarios are based on the previous qualitative study (see methodology) with the Czech scientists. The following analysis and interpretation focuses on the question of how various scientific groups handle the dilemmas and how sensitive they are to particular moral questions, based on their demographic characteristics (gender, age, experience, academic accomplishments and their disciplines etc.)|